1. What is different between Gigahertz, Megahertz, and Terahertz?

  • Relation of wavelength to frequency & speed: notice that the shorter the wavelength the higher the frequency. That’s why in our table above as the wavelengths get smaller (notice those negative exponents?) the electromagnetic frequency numbers get larger.More technically, wavelength is inversely proportional to wave frequency.
  • Hertz – Hz is defined as the number of cycles per second of any oscillating or repeating phenomenon, but usually used to define electrical signals, or electrical field frequencies such as those of electromagnetic fields, radio signals, or computer processing clock cycles. Wireless network wifi 2.4G=2400m (microwave oven)
  • Gigahertz – 10 to the 9th power Giga
  • Megahertz – 10 to the 6th power Mega
  • Terahertz – 10 to the 3rd power thousand

2. What is different between Wavelength and Frequency?

  • Wavelength: The distance between two close points that are in phase with each other is defined as a wavelength. As a result, a single wavelength separates two consecutive peaks on a wave that would otherwise be a trough. A wave’s wavelength is represented by the symbol lambda (λ).
  • Frequency: The number of wave vibrations for each unit time calculated in Hz is known as frequency. Humans can hear frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20000 Hz. Ultrasound refers to sound frequencies that are above the range of human hearing. Infrasound is the term for sound frequencies that are below the range of human hearing.
  • The relation between wavelength and frequency is discussed in this article. Waves have a variety of features that can be used to define them. Two such properties are wavelength and frequency.

3. What is Wi-Fi?

  • Wi-Fi is a wireless networking technology that allows devices such as computers (laptops and desktops), mobile devices (smart phones and wearables), and other equipment (printers and video cameras) to interface with the Internet. It allows these devices–and many more–to exchange information with one another, creating a network.
  • Internet connectivity occurs through a wireless router. When you access Wi-Fi, you are connecting to a wireless router that allows your Wi-Fi compatible devices to interface with the Internet.

4. How does Wi-Fi work?

  • On the technical side, the IEEE 802.11 standard defines the protocols that enable communications with current Wi-Fi-enabled wireless devices, including wireless routers and wireless access points.
  • The standards operate on varying frequencies, deliver different bandwidth, and support different numbers of channels.

5. What is IEEE 802.11?

  • IEEE 802.11 is part of the IEEE 802 set of local area network (LAN) technical standards, and specifies the set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) protocols for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication. IEEE 802.11 is used in most home and office networks to allow laptops, printers, smartphones, and other devices to communicate with each other and access the Internet without connecting wires.
  • IEEE 802.11 uses various frequencies including, but not limited to, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, 6 GHz, and 60 GHz frequency bands. Although IEEE 802.11 specifications list channels that might be used, the radio frequency spectrum availability allowed varies significantly by regulatory domain.

6. Can you show me WiFi Generation information?

Wi-Fi Generation List
Wi-Fi GenerationIEEES standardMaximum Rate
Product Launch Date
Wi‑Fi 7802.11be40000Pending2.4/5/6
Wi‑Fi 6E802.11ax600~960820202.4/5/6
Wi‑Fi 620192.4/5
Wi‑Fi 5802.11ac433~693320145
Wi‑Fi 4802.11n72~60020082.4/5
Wi-Fi 3802.11g6~5420032.4
Wi-Fi 2802.11a6~5419995
Wi-Fi 1802.11b1~1119992.4
Wi-Fi 0802.111~219972.4


ProtocolFrequencyMax PHY RateInsideOutside









802.11n2.4 / 5GHz150Mbps(40MHz * 1MIMO)

600Mbps(40MHz * 4MIMO)

802.11ac5GHz200Mbps(40MHz * 1MIMO)

433.3Mbps(80MHz * 1MIMO)

866.7Mbps(160MHz * 1MIMO)



7. What is baseband processor?

  • A baseband processor is a device in a network interface controller that manages all the radio functions (all functions that require an antenna); however, this term is generally not used in reference to Wi-Fi and Bluetooth radios. A baseband processor typically uses its own RAM and firmware. however, this term is generally not used in reference to Wi-Fi and Bluetooth radios.

8. What is MAC(Media Access Control Address)?

  • MAC is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for use as a network address in communications within a network segment.
  • This use is common in most IEEE 802 networking technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. Within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model, MAC addresses are used I n the medium access control protocol sublayer of the data link layer. As typically represented, MAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or without a separator.

9. What is Ethernet?

  • Ethernet is one of the original networking technologies, simplicity by which the communications protocol can be deployed and its ability to incorporate modern advancements without losing backwards compatibility, Ethernet continues to reign as the factor standard for computer networking.
  • Ethernet is a protocol that allows computers (from servers to laptops) to talk to each other over wired networks that use devices like routers, switches and hubs to direct traffic. Ethernet works seamlessly with wireless protocols, too.
  • Its ability to work within almost any environment has led to its universal adoption around the world. This is especially true because it allows organizations to use the same Ethernet protocol in their local area network (LAN) and their wide-area network (WAN).

10. What is LoRa?

  • LoRa is a wireless technology that offers long range, low power and secure data transmission for M2M and IoT applications.
  • It designed to wirelessly connect battery operated devices to the internet in regional, national or global networks, and targets key Internet of things (IoT) requirements such as bi-directional communication, end-to-end security, mobility and localization services.

11. What is IoT?

  • The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—“things”—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet.
  • Now that we can connect everyday objects—kitchen appliances, cars, thermostats, baby monitors—to the internet via embedded devices, seamless communication is possible between people, processes, and things.

12. What is Zigbee?

  • Zigbee is a standards-based wireless technology developed to enable low-cost, low-power wireless machine-to-machine (M2M) and internet of things (IoT) networks.
  • ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 are standards-based protocols that provide the network infrastructure required for wireless sensor network applications. 802.15.4 defines the physical and MAC layers, and ZigBee defines the network and application layers. For sensor network applications, key design requirements revolve around long battery life, low cost, small footprint, and mesh networking to support communication between large numbers of devices in an interoperable and multi-application environment.

13. What is BLE(Bluetooth Low Energy)?

  • Bluetooth Low Energy is a wireless, low-power personal area network that operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Its goal is to connect devices over a relatively short range. BLE was created with IoT applications in mind, which has particular implications for its design. For example, IoT devices tend to be constrained and require extended battery use, so BLE favors low power consumption over continuous data transfer. In other words: when not in use, it goes into sleep mode to conserve energy.

14. What is 5G Wireless Technology?

  • 5G wireless technology is supposed to deliver higher multi-Gbps peak knowledge speeds, radical low latency, additional dependability, large network capability, enlarged accessibility, and additional uniform user expertise to additional users.

15. What is Wi-Fi Master?

  • Wi-Fi Master is the world’s first and largest peer-to-peer Wi-Fi sharing platform for free Wi-Fi. It is a mobile application software that leverages on the sharing economy, cloud computing, and big data to provide users with a safe and free Wi-Fi internet connection shared by hosts around the world.

16. What is Wi-Fi HaLow?

  • Wi-Fi HaLow refers to products using IEEE 802.11 technology, which extend the reach of Wi-Fi by operating in sub-1GHz frequency bands, enabling Wi-Fi to provide longer range and lower power connection. Wi-Fi HaLow addresses the unique needs of the Internet of Things (IoT) to support a variety of use cases in industrial, agricultural, smart building and smart city environments.
  • Wi-Fi HaLow provides the low-power connectivity necessary for applications including sensor networks and wearables. It has longer connection distances than many other IoT technologies and provides a more reliable connection in challenging environments where the ability to penetrate walls or other obstacles is an important consideration.

17. What is advantage of HaLow?

  • Efficiency
  • Data Rate
  • Increased device capacity
  • Penetration of building materials
  • Safety
  • Network data capacity
  • Operating Costs
  • Low power consumption
  • Interoperability and Customer Experience

18. What is a wireless access point?

  • A wireless access point (AP) allows wireless devices to connect to the wireless network. Having a Cisco wireless network makes it easy to bring new devices online and provides flexible support to mobile workers.
  • What a wireless access point does for your network is similar to what an amplifier does for your home stereo. An access point takes the bandwidth coming from a router and stretches it so that many devices can go on the network from farther distances away. But a wireless access point does more than simply extend Wi-Fi. It can also give useful data about the devices on the network, provide proactive security, and serve many other practical purposes.

19. What is a wireless router?

  • Wireless routers are commonly found in homes — they’re the hardware devices that Internet service providers use to connect you to their cable.
  • A wireless router, also called a Wi-Fi router, combines the networking functions of a wireless access point and a router.
  • A router connects local networks to other local networks or to the Internet. A wireless access point connects devices to the network wirelessly, using radio frequencies in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands. The latest wireless routers are based on the IEEE 802.11ac Wave 2 standard, often shortened to Wave 2.
  • A wireless router is sometimes referred to as a WLAN (wireless local area network) device. A wireless network is also called a Wi-Fi network.

20. What is WLAN?

  • Wireless LANs (WLANs) are wireless computer networks that use high-frequency radio waves instead of cables for connecting the devices within a limited area forming LAN (Local Area Network). Users connected by wireless LANs can move around within this limited area such as home, school, campus, office building, railway platform, etc.

21. What is LAN?

  • A local area network (LAN) is a collection of devices connected together in one physical location, such as a building, office, or home. A LAN can be small or large, ranging from a home network with one user to an enterprise network with thousands of users and devices in an office or school.
  • Regardless of size, a LAN’s single defining characteristic is that it connects devices that are in a single, limited area.

22. How Your Router Affects Wi-Fi Range

  • Not all routers are made the same. With all the router configurations available, some routers will provide better wireless access points than others. There are usually three factors that make routers a better wireless access point. These would be transmit power, antenna gain, and operational frequency.
  • Transmit power is simply the energy your router consumes to broadcast data. This power consumption directly correlates to stronger signal output resulting in longer Wi-Fi range coverage.
  • Antenna gain is the added signal strength an antenna provides to a transmitter device like a router. You may also see different antenna configurations that come fitted on routers. The most common ones are 2×2, 4×4, and 6×6 MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) antennas. Although having multiple MIMO antennas doesn’t necessarily mean a longer Wi-Fi range, it does mean faster and more reliable Wi-Fi.

23. What is Hub?

  • Hub is the most basic networking device that connects multiple computers or other network devices.
  • Most hubs can detect basic network errors, such as collisions, but having all information broadcast to multiple ports is a security risk and causes bottlenecks.

24. What is Switch?

  • A switch is a piece of a physical circuitry component that governs the signal flow. Having a switch or toggle switch allows a connection to be opened or closed. When opened, the switch allows a signal or power to flow through the connection. When closed, the switch stops the flow and breaks the circuit connection.

25. What is MIMO(Multiple-Input Multiple-Output)?

  • MIMO is a radio communications technology or RF technology that is being mentioned and used in many new technologies these days.
  • Wireless and RF technologies are using the new MIMO wireless technology to provide increased link capacity and spectral efficiency combined with improved link reliability using what were previously seen as interference paths.

26. What is massive mimo?

  • Massive MIMO is a key enabler of 5G’s extremely fast data rates and promises to raise 5G’s potential to a new level.

27. What is benefit of massive mimo?

  • Increased Network Capacity- Network Capacity is defined as the total data volume that can be served to a user and the maximum number of users that can be served with certain level of expected service. Massive MIMO contributes to increased capacity first by enabling 5G NR deployment in the higher frequency range in Sub-6 GHz (e.g., 3.5 GHz); and second by employing MU-MIMO where multiple users are served with the same time and frequency resources.
  • Improved Coverage- With massive MIMO, users enjoy a more uniform experience across the network, even at the cell’s edge – so users can expect high data rate service almost everywhere. Moreover, 3D beamforming enables dynamic coverage required for moving users (e.g., users traveling in cars or connected cars) and adjusts the coverage to suit user location, even in locations that have relatively weak network coverage.
  • User experience – Ultimately, the above two benefits result in a better overall user experience — users can transfer large data files or download movies, or use data-hungry apps on the go, wherever life takes them.

28. What is SU-MIMO (Single User- Multiple-Input Multiple-Output)?

  • SU-MIMO was an optional technology that came along with 802.11n standards.
  • Single User MIMO operates multiple streams of data must be sent or received between just one device at a time. This technology requires both the transmitting and receiving Wi-Fi radios support the MIMO technology, along with having multiple antennas.
  • While MU-MIMO only became available on wave 2 of 802.11ac standards. This technology enables Wi-Fi to simultaneously transmit those multiple streams to different Wi-Fi devices, instead of just one single device when compared to the older version (SU-MIMO).

29. What is MU-MIMO(Multiple Users-Multiple-Input Multiple-Output)?

  • The more devices that connect to your home WiFi, the slower it moves. That’s because most routers can only communicate with one device at a time. With these single-user (SU-MIMO) routers, each device waits its turn to send and receive data from the Internet, so when a new device connects, the line—and the wait—becomes a little longer.
  • Another benefit to ‘MU’ is the Wi-Fi devices receiving one of the MIMO data streams doesn’t have to have multiple antennas therefore even devices with single antenna will support this. However, the receiving Wi-Fi devices must support the MU-MIMO technology.

30. What is FDM(Frequency-Division Multiplexing)?

  • FDM is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal.
  • This allows a single transmission medium such as a cable or optical fiber to be shared by multiple independent signals. Another use is to carry separate serial bits or segments of a higher rate signal in parallel.

31. What is OFDMA(Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing)?

  • OFDMA is is a type of digital transmission and a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital communication, used in applications such as digital television and audio broadcasting, DSL internet access, wireless networks, power line networks, and 4G/5G mobile communications.

32. What is TWT(Target Wake Time)?

  • Target Wake Time (TWT) reduces power consumption and improves spectral efficiency by enabling devices to determine how often to wake in order to send/receive data. This technology enables 802.11ax deployments to consistenly deliver higher quality of service to many different devices with minimal contention or overlap.

33. What is QAM(Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)?

  • QAM has to do with the way that digital information is transmitted between two points.
  • QAM enables an analog signal to efficiently transmit digital information. It also provides the means by which an operator transmits more bits in the same time period, which effectively increases the bandwidth.
  • Network operators are experiencing an ever-increasing need for more QAM channels, driven by the explosive demand by consumers for high-speed data, high-definition television, video-on-demand, network personal video recording, Internet Protocol cable television and digital phone service. They currently represent a significant portion of the capital spent for deploying digital video services. In the past, each individual service, such as high-speed Internet, broadcast cable television, and video-on-demand, had its own QAM modulator in a low density edge QAM.

34. What is Simplex?

  • Simplex is a communications mode in which only one signal is transmitted, and it always goes in the same direction.
  • The transmitter and the receiver operate on the same frequency. When two stations exist and they alternately (not simultaneously) send signals to each other on the same frequency, the mode is technically known as half duplex. However, most amateur radio operators refer to half duplex as simplex.
  • At high and microwave wireless frequencies, the simplex or half duplex modes will not provide enough communications range in some situations.
  • In order for a station to send and receive data simultaneously, two different frequencies must be used, one for transmitting and the other for receiving, a mode called full duplex. A more sophisticated mode called multiplexing allows for two or more signals or streams of information to be sent simultaneously in the same direction as an “interwoven” complex signal. The component signals are extracted and decoded individually at the receiving end.

35. What is PCIe?

  • PCIe is a high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard, designed to replace the older PCI, PCI-X and AGP bus standards. It is the common motherboard interface for personal computers graphics cards, hard disk drive host adapters, SSDs, Wi-Fi and Ethernet hardware connections.
  • PCIe has numerous improvements over the older standards, including higher maximum system bus throughput, lower I/O pin count and smaller physical footprint, better performance scaling for bus devices, a more detailed error detection and reporting mechanism (Advanced Error Reporting, AER), and native hot-swap functionality. More recent revisions of the PCIe standard provide hardware support for I/O virtualization.

36. What is Mini PCIe?

  • Mini PCI peripheral interface for laptops and mobile devices. Using PCI Express signaling, Mini PCI Express (mPCIe) was originally designed for graphics cards and other peripherals but was later used for storage. The cards plug directly into the motherboard. Introduced in 2002, Mini PCI Express was superseded by M.2

37. What is SSID?

  • The term SSID may sound complex, but it’s just the technical term for a network’s name. Whether you’re connecting to a WiFi network at home or the shopping mall, it has an SSID. When you tap and hold the WiFi icon on your device, you’ll see a number of network names or SSIDs in your area.

38. What is DBDC(Dual Band Dual Concurrent) in WiFi?

  • Dual Band Dual Concurrent (DBDC) APs, which allow use of both bands simultaneously, are also available and should also be considered for in-home Wi-Fi deployments.

39. What is LTE Gateway?

  • Designed for wireless communication in the mobile networks that make use of traditional cellular technologies. The primary purpose of this router is its use in the Category M1 (Cat M1) services on the cellular LTE network.

40. What is OEM(Original Equipment Manufacturers)?

  • OEM is sell highly customised products designed to suit a client’s specifications.

41. What the OEM does?

  • Manufactures the product

42. What is ODM(Original Design Manufacturers)?

  • ODM is produce their own products and essentially lease them out to clients on a private label or white label basis so they don’t have to invest in building their own consumer brand.

43. What the ODM does?

  • R&D(Research and development)
  • Product testing
  • Product manufacturing
  • White or private label offerings